The United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on the World Drug Problem in April 2016 provides a unique opportunity to review the impact of the existing international drug control system on the health and well-being of mankind. The development and implementation of drug control policies have a significant impact on health and rights. Addressing HIV among people who inject drugs is one of the major avenues to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030. UNAIDS welcomes the stronger health and rights approach that is emerging in current drug control debates in the context of the 2016 UNGASS on the World Drug Problem. This trend needs to be translated into concrete operational and measurable commitments by Member States.